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堕落女性,冉升明星,新的视野:试论作为白话现代主义的上海无声电影

2015年06月03日 04:18:04 来源: 《当代电影》2004 年第1 期

 

  注释:

  (1)参阅笔者论文《大批量生产的知觉:作为白话现代主义的近代电影》(The Mass Production of the Senses:Classical Cinema as Vernacular Modernism),载琳达•威廉姆斯(Linda Williams) 与克里斯丁•格莱德后(Christine Gledhill) 编著《重创电影研究》(Reinventing Film Studies),London:Edward Arnold,2000.

  (2 )我对于公共领域作为社会“体验地平线” 的理解受惠于Oskar Negt and Alexander Kluge,The Public Sphere and Experience (1972),tr. Peter Labanyi,Jamie Daniel,Assenka Oksiloff,intr. Miriam Hansen (Minaapolis,MN:University of Minnesota,1993).

  (3) 参见Susan Buck-Morss,Aesthetics and Anaesthetics:Walter Benjamin's Artwork Essay Reconsidered,October 62 (Fall 1992):3-41;同时可参阅拙文,Miriam Hansen,Benjamin and Cinema:Not a One-Way Street,Critical Inquiry 25.2(winter 1999)306-43.

  (4)译者注:汉森在使用vernacular 一词时,主要基于这一语汇在西方历史文化中的诸多涵义,同时也受到她对中国五四白话运动重新认识的重要影响。由于这两方面的涵义,加上汉森强调vernacular在语言学上实体层面和寓意层面的内涵,译者将vernacular modernism 译作“白话现代主义”,而非“通俗现代主义”。也参见本文注释第19 条。有关将上海二三十年代商业大众文化(尤以电影为集中体现) 看作广义的五四白话运动,并对后者补充扩展的论述,见张真的博士论文,详见本文注释第23 条。

  (5)请参见,例如,Jean-Louis Baudry,Chrisitan Metz,Raymond Bellour,Stephen Heath,Laura Mulvey及Colin MacCabe等人的文字,收入Philip Rosen,ed.,Narrative,Apparatus,Ideology:A Film Theory Reader(New York:Columbia University Press,1986).有关新形式主义和认知科学的电影研究,见David Bordwell,Janet Staiger,and Kristin Thompson,The Classical Hollywood Cinema:Film Style and Mode of Prodcution to 1960 (Nnew York:Columbia University Press,1985);K.Thompson,Breaking the Glass Armor:Neoformalist Film Analysis (Princeeton,N.J.:Princeton University Press); No.l Carroll,Theorizing the Moving Image (New York:Cambridge University Press, 1996);No.l Carroll,Prospects for Film Theory:A Personal Assessment,Post-Theory Reconstructing Film Studies,ed. D. Bordwell and N. Carroll (Madison,WI:University of Wisconsin Press,1996),37-70. Also see Jane Gaines,ed.,Classical Hollywood Narrative:The Paradigm Wars (Durham,N.C.:Duke University Press,1992).

  (6) 参阅Cahiers du cinema编辑,John Ford's young Mr. Lincoln,Raymond Bellour,The Obvious and the Code,Laura Mulvey,Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema,Colin MacCabe,Theory and Film:Principles of Realism and Pleasure,Stephen Heath,Narrative Space,以上论文均收入Rosen,Narrative, Apparatus,Ideology;Christian Metz,The Imaginary Signifier (1977),tr. Celia Britton,Annwyl Williams,Ben Brewster,and Alfred Guzzetti (Bloomington,IN:Indiana University Press,1982).

  (7)译者注:Hard-wired 为计算机术语,意即“硬接线的,硬连线的”,指具有固定电子线路不能再有程序使之改变的。

  (8) Bordwell,La Nouvelle Mission de Feuillade;or,What Was Mis-en-ScèneThe Velvet Light Trap 37 (1996):23;Bordwell,Narration and the Fiction Film,35; 也可参见Bordwell,On the History of Film Style (Cambridge,MA:Harvard University Press,1997),142,及Bordwell,Convention,Construction,and Cinematic Vision, in Post-Theory, 87-107, Kristin Thompson 的新著论及经典规范在1960年之后的持久影响,详见Storytelling in the New Hollywood:Understanding Classical Narrative Technique (Cambridge,MA:Harvard University Press,1999)

  (9)对这一倾向的批评论述,见D.N.Rodowick,The Crisis of Political Modernism:Criticism and Ideology in Contemporary Film Theory (Chicago University of Illinois Press,1988).

  (10)Antonin Artaud,The Shell and the Clergyman:Film Scenario,transition29-30 (June,1930):65, quoted in Siegfried Kracauer,Theory of Film (1960;Princeton,N.J.:Princeton University Press,1997),189;Louis Aragon,On Décor (1918) in Richard Abe,ed.,French Film Theory and Criticism:A HistoryAnthology,1907-1939, 2 vols. (Princeton, N.J.:Princeton University Press,1988),I:165. 又请看同一书中,Colette,Cinema:The Cheat:Louis delluc,Beauty in the Cinema (1917) and From Orestes to Rio Jim (1921);Blaise Cendrars,The Modern:A New Art,the Cinema (1919);Jean Epstein,Magnification (1921);及Bonjour cinema and other writings by Jean Epstein, tr. Tom Milne,Afterimage,no.10 [n.d.] 尤其见9-16.

  (11) Victoria de Grazia,Americanism for Export,Wedge 7-8 (Winter-Spring 1985):74-81;77.关于美国主义的欧洲形式,参见,Mary Nolan, Visions of Modernity American Business and the Modernization of Germany (New York:Oxford University Press,1994);Thomas J. Saunders,Hollywood in Berlin:American Cinema and Weimar Germany (Berkeley,CA:University of California Press,1994),esp,chaps 4 & 5;Alf Lüdtke, Inge Mar.olek, Adelheid von Saldem, eds., Amerikanisierung Traum und Alptraum im Deutschland des 20. Jahrhunderts (Stuttgart:Franz Steiner,1996);Jean-Louis Cohen and Humbert Damisch,eds.,Américanisme et modernité;L'idéal américain dans l'architecture (Paris:EHESS,Flammarion, 1993).

  (12)有关国外市场对美国电影工业的意义,请参阅K. Thompson,Exporting Entertainment,(London:British Film Institute,1985);Ian Jarvie,Hollywood's Overseas Campaign:The North Atlantic Movie Trade,1920-1950 (New York Cambridge University Press,1992);David W. Ellwood and Rob Kroes, eds.,Hollywood in Europe:Experiences of a Cultural Hegemony (Amsterdam VrijeUniversity Press,1994);Ruth Vasey,The World According to Hollywood,1918-1939 (Madison,WI;University of Wisconsin Press,1997). 关于1910 年代将电影赞誉为新的“宇宙语言”,参见拙著,Miriam Hansen,Babel and Bablylon;Spectatorship in American Silent Film (Cambridge,MA;Harvard University Press,1991),76-81,183-87.

  (13)本雅明对于“视觉无意识”(optical unconscious) 的阐发,详见“A Short Historyof Photography (1931),tr. Stanley Mitchell,Screen 13 (Spring 1972):7-8,以及他的著名论文,The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction (1936),Illuminations,ed.Hannah Arendt,tr. Harry Zohn (New York:Schocken,1969),235-37).

  (1 4 )有关电影作为新的可选择的公共空间的重要性,西格弗里德•克拉考尔(Siegfried Kracauer) 曾就德国1920年代的情况加以理论探讨。克拉考尔写过数百篇影评并以随笔叙述新兴的媒体、大众和商业文化;可参见Cult of Distraction (1926),载于Kracauer,The Mass Ornament:The Weimar Essays,tr.,ed.,and intr.Thomas Y.Levin (Cambridge,MA:Harvard University Press,1995),323-28.

  (15)关于将美国式大团圆式结尾改为“俄国式结尾”的详情,见Yuri Tsivian,Some Preparatory Remarks on Russian Cinema,Silent Witnesses:Russian Films 1908-:1919,ed.,Paolo Cherchi Usai et al.(London“British Film Institute,1989),24;也请参阅Mary Ann Doane,Melodrama,Temporality,Recognition:American and RussianSilent Cinema,Cinefocus (Bloomington,IN) 2:1(Fall,1991):13-26.

  (16)关于美国电影“低俗”类型在苏维埃俄国的盛行,请参见Yuri Tsivian,Betweenthe Old and the New:Soviet Film Culture in 1918-1924,Griffithiana 5556:15-63.有关电影作为经典构造与电影经验之间的张力,见拙作,Babel and Bablylon,99-101各处。

  (17)译者注:作者在这里提到attraction,译者翻译为“招徕手段”;但Attraction在此处还牵涉到近年来关于西方早期电影的理论探讨,即将早期电影(1895-1907) 命名为Cinema of Attractions,强调它与好莱坞叙事电影的区别在于早期电影及电影文化用种种视觉和商业手段吸引观众,而不以叙事为中心,也不强调叙事的连贯性,电影镜头和剪辑手段的透明性等等。这些特征在经典电影树立之后潜入地下,只在某些镜头和先锋电影中出现。其中最著名的一篇论文是Tom Gunning,The Cinema of Attraction,Early Film,its Spectator,and the Avant-Garde,Wide Angle,Vol. 8 nos 34,Fall 1986,第63-70 页. 有关西方早期电影的论文集,可参阅Early Cinema:Space,Frame,Narrative,ed,Thomas Elsaesser (London:British Film Institute:1990),关于电影文化和现代性问题,可见于Cinema and the Invention of Modern Life,eds Leo Charney & Vanessa R.Schwartz,(Berkeley:University of California Press,1995).

  (18) Marie Cambon,The Dream Palaces of Shanghai:American Films in China's Largest Metropolits Prior to 1949,Asian Cinema 7 (1995):34.

  (19 ) 这一白话现代主义与五四运动所倡导的中国文学艺术现代主义实践并非毫不相干。有关五四当时和稍后的论述,可参见胡适《尝试集》作者自序;胡适选集(上海,1930),第41页,被迫反抗,文学革命的开始”, 选自赵家壁《中国新文学大系》,1935,I,第3-27 页;傅斯年《“五四”二十五周年》,《大公报》,重庆,1944 年5 月4 日,等等。

  (20)电影目录详见程季华,李少白, 邢祖文《中国电影:中国电影目录,1905-1937》tr. Derek Elley,Griffithiana 54 (October 1995): 4-91, 以及由Elley编撰并翻译的文件“桃花梦:中国无声电影过眼录”,Griffithiana 6061 (October 1997):126-79.在波多诺尼放映中国电影时,无双语的字幕由同声翻译伴随;有关中国电影的录像带,我由衷感谢张真的现场翻译。

  (21)有关的英文论述,见Tse-Tung Chow,The May Fourth Movement:Intellectual Revolution in Modern China (Cambridge,MA:Harvard University Press,1960).有关“五四”运动与左翼电影的联系,参阅Leo Ou-fan Lee, The Tradition of ModernChinese Cinema:Some Preliminary Explorations and Hypotheses,in Chris Berry,ed.,Perspectives on Chinese Cinema (London British Film Insititute,1991) 6-20;Ma Ning,The Textual and Critical Difference of Being Radical:Reconstructing Chinese Leftist Films of the 1930s,Wide Angle 11.2 (1989):22-31;及Chris Berry,Poisonous Weedsor National Treasures:Chinese Left Cinema in the 1930s,Jump Cut 34 (1989) 187-94. 还请参阅Paul Pickowicz,The Theme of Spiritual Pollution in Chinese Films of the 1930s,Modern China,17.1 (Januarary,1991): 38-75. 有关这一传统的早期叙述,见Jay Leyda (陈立),Dianying:Electric Shadows:An Account of Films and the Film Audience in China (Cambridge, MA MIT Press, 1972). 也请参阅Scott Meek and Tony Rayns,Electric Shadows:45 Years of Chinese Cinema (London:British Film Institute, 1980);John Ellis,Electric Shadows in Italy, Screen 23.2 (JulyAugust 1982) 79-83;Marie-ClaireQuiquemelle 及Jean-Loup Passek,eds,Le Cinéma Chinois (Paris:Centre GeorgesPompidou,1985).

  (22) Paul Pickowicz,Melodramatic Representation and the 'May Fourth' tradition of Chinese Cinena,in Ellen Widmer and David Wang,eds.,From May Fourth to June Fourth Fiction and Film in Twentieth Century China (Cambridge,MA:Harvard UniversityPress,1993),308. 有关对1930 年代中国电影情节剧特征的不同看法,见William Rothman,The Goddess:Reflections on Melodrama East and West, in Wimal Disanayake,ed.,Melodrama and Asian Cinema (Honolulu:University of Hawaii Press,1993),59-72. 对西方情节剧传统的重新评估,参阅Christine Gledhill,ed.,Home is Where theHeart is:Studies in Melodrama and the Woman's Film (London:British Film Institute,1987),特别请看Gledhill的介绍,The Melodramatic Field:An Investigation 5-39.

  (23)见李欧梵,Leo Ou-fan Lee,Shanghai Modern:The Flowering of New UrbanCulture in China,1930-1945 (Cambridge,MA:Harvard University Press,1999);以及由张英镜编辑的文集,Yingjin Zhang,Romance,Sexuality,Identity:Cinema andUrban Culture in Shanghai,1922-1943 (Stanford,CA:Stanford University Press,1999).有关上海电影文化作为都市现代性组成部分的涵盖最广、且最富创意的论述,见张真的博士论文,Zhang Zhen,An Amorous History of the Silver Screen:Film Culture,Urban Modernity,and the Vernacular Experience in China,1896-1937,Ph.D. dissertation(University of Chicago,1998).

  (24)有关现代化和移民的巨大变动及挑战,见Frederic Wakeman,Jr.,Policing Shanghai 1927-1937 (Berkeley,CA:University of California Press,1995);Betty Peh- Ti Wei,Shanghai:Crucible of Modern China (New York Oxford University Press,1987);Bryna Goodman,Native Place,City,and nation:Regional Networks and Identities in Shanghai,1853-1937 (Berkeley,CA:University of California Press,1995).Disembedding 一词源于Anthony Giddens有关现代化过程中对社会关系影响的论述,例如:Anthony Giddens,The Consequence of Modernity (Stanford:CA:University of Stanford Press,1990) 及Modernity and Self-Identity:Self and Society in the Late Modern Age (Stanford, CA:Stanford University Press, 1991).

  (25) Pickowicz,Melodramatic Representation”,307.

  (26)陈立(Leyda),Dianying,79.

  (27) 译者注:这里的象形文字,既指中国二三十年代电影中常见的霓虹灯广告,也涉及了本雅明对现代性的论述。本雅明认为商业产品( 包括霓虹灯广告) 可以作为现代都市文化的神秘象形符号,它既是现代性与历史断代的症候,也向人们提供了与史前史有着某种神秘联系的寓言和机会。见Walter Benjamin,One Way Street, in Walter Benjamin,Selected Writings,Vol.2,(Cambridge:Harvard University Press,1999). 另外,汉森在这里还关系到Mary Ann Doane 有关女性形象在好莱坞电影中象形文字式的神秘和难以解读性。Doane 的这一论述批评了Laura Mulvey 的著名论文Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema 对女性在好莱坞银幕上作为视觉客体的论述。Doane 认为女性形象的神秘性使得以男性视角为中心的框架难以将这些形象作为可以轻易解读的客体。见Mary Ann Doane,Film and the Masquerade,Theorizing the Female Spectator,Screen,vol. 23,nos 3-4 (September-October,1982),74-88. Mulvey 文章的中文翻译见劳拉•穆尔维《视觉快感与叙事电影》,周传基译,文化艺术出版社,《影视文化》第一辑。

  (28) Rey Chow (周蕾),Primitive Passions:Visuality,Sexuality,Ethnography,and Contemporary Chinese Cinema (New York:Columbia University Press,1995),21.

  (29)译者注:这里,汉森使用了假装化妆演出(masquerade) 这一语汇,与Doane在Film and the Masquerade一文中的观点遥相呼应。

  (30) Yingjin Zhang,The City in Modern Chinese Literature and Film:Configurations of Space,Time,and Gender (Stanford,CA:Stanford University Press,1996),203f.

  (31)见Kristine Harris,The New Woman:Image,Subject,and Dissent in 1930s Shanghai Film Culture,Republican China 20.2 (1995):55-79,以及后来对此文的展开,The New Woman Incident:Cinema, Scandal,and Spectacle in 1935 Shanghai,载Transnational Chinese Cinemas:Identity,Nationhood,Gender,ed. Sheldon HsiaopengLu (Honolulu,HI:University of Hawaii Press,1997),277-302.

  (32)见Rothman,The Goddess 66.

  (33) 详见Harris,The New Woman Incident,以及Elley 编辑的材料,Elley,ed.,Peach Blossom Dreams,137-43.

  译者注:瓦伦丁诺(Rudolf Valentino) 为美国无声电影时代的著名男影星(原籍意大利) ,以扮演古装或外国男子吸引了大批女性影迷, 1926 年去世时引起公众大规模悼念活动。主要电影Blood and Sand (1922),Monsieur Beaucaire (1924),The Son of the Shiek (1926)。汉森在她的书中曾以瓦伦丁诺为例,详细讨论女性视觉的问题(再次挑战穆尔维的观点)。见Miriam Hansen,Babel and Bablylon,245-297。

  (34)“大众饰物”这一概念来自克拉考尔(Siegfreid Kracauer) 1927年的同名论文,详见《大众饰物》The Mass Ornament,75-86.

  (35) 见Elley有关孙瑜的一章, Elley ed.,Peach Blossom Dream,145-161;A Gentle Discourse on a Genius:Sun Yu, 及Li Cheuk-ToEight Films of Sun Yu, tr. Jacob Wong,Cinemaya:The Asian Film Magazine II (1991):53-63;还可参阅Chris Berry,The Sublimative Text:Sex and Revolution in Big Road,East-West Film Journal 2.2 (June 1988):66-86.

  (36)表嫂的疾病与《波希米亚人》(La Bohème) 中咪咪(Mimi)的症候相呼应,并非偶然,而两位主人公居住的环境也有其相似性,这后一联系似乎是通过了法兰克•波扎克(Frank Borzage) 导演的《七重天》(Seventh Heaven )的中介。《天明》在不只一处回应《七重天》,其中最引人注目的是一个穿越公寓楼梯的移动镜头。见Paola Cherchi Usai,节目介绍,Le Giornate del Cinema Muto,Pordenone,1995.

  (37)性格是经典好莱坞电影的中心概念,如D. Bordwell and K. Thompson, Film Art An Introduction,4th ed (New York:McGraw-Hill,1993),69,82.也请参见Murray Smith,Engaging Characters:Fiction,Emotion,and the Cinema (New York:Oxford University Press,1995);以及有关“电影性格”的专集,Iris:a Journal of Theory onImage and Sound 24 (Autumn,1997).

  (3 8 )当然,片中仍存有一些个人的时刻,使观众能一瞥她“真正”的自我,例如她在被带离公寓前放走笼中宠爱的小鸟。

  (39) 这一幕与Dishonored也有相应之处,尤其是片中早些时候底特莉齐假扮村姑,造成类似的富于反讽意味的不协调。

  (40)引自陈立,Dianying,13. 对这一镜头寓言性的有趣解读,见周蕾,PrimitivePassions 4-11;参见Ma Ning,The Textual and Critical Difference of Being Radical, 23.

  (41)Ackbar Abbas, Hong Kong:Culture and the Politics of disappearance (Minneapolis,MN:University of Minnesota Press,1997),12.

作者: [美] 米莲姆•布拉图•汉森 包卫红译 责编: 郭德海